He usually designed complete altar compositions, working as architect and sculptor as well as painter—at, for instance, the Hospital de la Caridad. Plus watch NewsNOW, FOX SOUL, and more exclusive coverage from around the country. It may be that El Greco had married unhappily in his youth in Crete or Italy and therefore could not legalize another attachment. Greco est aussi un prolifique inventeur, renouvelant en profondeur et inventant parfois les iconographies, qu'elles soient chrétiennes ou mythologiques, témoignant toujours d'une grande indépendance d'esprit qui trouve un écho dans la liberté de sa touche comme dans les audaces de sa palette. In 1937, a highly influential study by art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini had the effect of greatly increasing the number of works accepted to be by El Greco.  El Greco's father, Geórgios Theotokópoulos (d. 1556), was a merchant and tax collector.  The minutes of the commission of The Virgin of the Immaculate Conception (1607–1613), which were composed by the personnel of the municipality, describe El Greco as "one of the greatest men in both this kingdom and outside it". Clovio characterized El Greco as "a rare talent in painting". Greco, Cuisine Grecque, est entièrement dédié aux merveilles de la cuisine grecque et comprend tout ce qu'il faut afin d'apprécier de bons plats comme seuls les grecs savent le faire. There he came into contact with the intellectual elite of the city, including the Roman scholar Fulvio Orsini, whose collection would later include seven paintings by the artist (View of Mt. D. Davies, "The Influence of Neo-Platonism on El Greco", 20 etc. He trained and became a master within that tradition before traveling at age 26 to Venice, as other Greek artists had done. These ideas were, however, far too extreme for the architectural circles of his era and had no immediate resonance. juliette greco ep 45 tours " jolie mome " + 3 philips 432.552 . However, the king did not like these works and placed the St Maurice altarpiece in the chapter-house rather than the intended chapel.  El Greco discarded classicist criteria such as measure and proportion. Fray Hortensio Paravicino, the head of the Trinitarian order in Spain and a favourite preacher of Philip II of Spain, dedicated four sonnets to El Greco, one of them recording his own portrait by the artist. It was there where his works, created in the spirit of the post-Byzantine painters of the Cretan School, were greatly esteemed. Born in 1541, in either the village of Fodele or Candia (the Venetian name of Chandax, present day Heraklion) on Crete, El Greco was descended from a prosperous urban family, which had probably been driven out of Chania to Candia after an uprising against the Catholic Venetians between 1526 and 1528. Author of, 63 Questions from Britannica’s Most Popular Visual Arts Quizzes. WorkspaceArt is a division of Art.com Inc. © All Rights Reserved. From this point of view, it is correct to say that Cubism has a Spanish origin and that I invented Cubism.  Francisco Pacheco, a painter and theoretician who visited El Greco in 1611, wrote that the painter liked "the colors crude and unmixed in great blots as a boastful display of his dexterity" and that "he believed in constant repainting and retouching in order to make the broad masses tell flat as in nature".  On 6 July 1572, El Greco officially complained about this event. , El Greco did not plan to settle permanently in Toledo, since his final aim was to win the favor of Philip and make his mark in his court. A letter of November 16, 1570, written by Giulio Clovio, an illuminator in the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, requested lodging in the Palazzo Farnese for “a young man from Candia, a pupil of Titian.” On July 8, 1572, “the Greek painter” is mentioned in a letter sent from Rome by a Farnese official to the same cardinal.  In one of his last articles, Wethey reassessed his previous estimations and accepted that El Greco left Crete in 1567. , Because of his unconventional artistic beliefs (such as his dismissal of Michelangelo's technique) and personality, El Greco soon acquired enemies in Rome. El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)(Crète, 1541 – Tolède, 1614)Le Grec était un peintre d'i Ainsi, on ne s'étonnera pas de retrouver dans son œuvre de multiples influences : celle de l'icône byzantine, de la lumière vénitienne, du ténébrisme romain et du mysticisme espagnol.  His works painted in Italy were influenced by the Venetian Renaissance style of the period, with agile, elongated figures reminiscent of Tintoretto and a chromatic framework that connects him to Titian.  Therefore, it seems that El Greco traveled to Venice sometime after 27 December 1566. It is not confirmed whether he lived with his Spanish female companion, Jerónima de Las Cuevas, whom he probably never married. " According to Professor of Spanish John Armstrong Crow, "astigmatism could never give quality to a canvas, nor talent to a dunce". également sculpté par. Pour la première fois en France, le Grand Palais consacre une exposition à l’artiste crétois Domenico Theotokopoulos, dit « Greco », fondateur de l’École espagnole du XVI e siècle.  In El Greco's work, Meier-Graefe found foreshadowing of modernity. Updates? Even the architectural design of the altar frames, reminiscent of the style of the Venetian architect Palladio, was prepared by El Greco. Couverture rigide.  In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was already an enrolled master of the local guild, presumably in charge of his own workshop. How long the young artist remained in Rome is unknown, because he may have returned to Venice, about 1575–76, before he left for Spain. According to Pacheco, El Greco's perturbed, violent and at times seemingly careless-in-execution art was due to a studied effort to acquire a freedom of style. In 1908, Spanish art historian Manuel Bartolomé Cossío published the first comprehensive catalogue of El Greco's works; in this book El Greco was presented as the founder of the Spanish School. Juliette Gréco (French: [ʒyljɛt ɡʁeko]; 7 February 1927 – 23 September 2020) was a French singer and actress.Her best known songs are "Jolie Môme", "Déshabillez-moi", and "La Javanaise". 2707 El Greco Ln, Dallas, TX 75287 is a 3 bedroom, 2 bathroom, 1,794 sqft single-family home built in 1988. statues, penser à celles de Santo. He became a close friend of the leading humanists, scholars, and churchmen. Architect and writer Pirro Ligorio called him a "foolish foreigner", and newly discovered archival material reveals a skirmish with Farnese, who obliged the young artist to leave his palace. Le Greco, Collectif, Parkstone Press Ltd. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction ou téléchargez la version eBook. - Retourner à la version précédente , In 1998, the Greek electronic composer and artist Vangelis published El Greco, a symphonic album inspired by the artist. , — El Greco, from notes of the painter in one of his commentaries. , El Greco made Toledo his home. , During the course of the execution of a commission for the Hospital de Tavera, El Greco fell seriously ill, and died a month later, on 7 April 1614. lui. This property is not currently available for sale. 1,111 Followers, 800 Following, 581 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Sorin Lungu (El greco ) (@live.2020s) , g. ^ Mancini reports that El Greco said to the Pope that if the whole work was demolished he himself would do it in a decent manner and with seemliness. En 2014, l'Espagne va commémorer le 4e centenaire du décès de Greco (le 7 avril 1614, à Tolède).  El Greco was deemed incomprehensible and had no important followers. Il est grand temps de se faire plaisir, le tout au meilleur prix ! In golden and red vestments they bend reverently over the body of the count, who is clad in magnificent armour that reflects the yellow and reds of the other figures.  According to Brown, "Cézanne and El Greco are spiritual brothers despite the centuries which separate them".  Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, he signed his name in Greek as μαΐστρος Μένεγος Θεοτοκόπουλος σγουράφος ("Master Ménegos Theotokópoulos, painter"). Sa décoration.  Prevelakis goes even further, expressing his doubt that El Greco was ever a practicing Roman Catholic. " In 1585, he appears to have hired an assistant, Italian painter Francisco Preboste, and to have established a workshop capable of producing altar frames and statues as well as paintings. Découvrez l’art pictural unique de Doménikos Theotokópoulos, peintre singulier connu sous le nom de El Greco («Le Grec») et considéré comme un génie du XVIe siècle, précurseur des modernes. +le+greco by Andrea+emiliani+ - AbeBooks Skip to main content Some scholars have suggested that Philip did not like the inclusion of living persons in a religious scene; some others that El Greco's works violated a basic rule of the Counter-Reformation, namely that in the image the content was paramount rather than the style. Nothing is known about his mother or his first wife, also Greek. During these years he received several major commissions, and his workshop created pictorial and sculptural ensembles for a variety of religious institutions. Ce livre, Le Greco : être artiste et peindre dans l'Espagne post-tridentine, s'adresse en tout premier lieu aux candidates et aux candidats du concours du CAPES d'Espagnol. These works would establish the painter's reputation in Toledo. Wethey says that "by such simple means, the artist created a memorable characterization that places him in the highest rank as a portraitist, along with Titian and Rembrandt". El Greco never forgot that he was of Greek descent and usually signed his paintings in Greek letters with his full name, Doménikos Theotokópoulos.  To the Blaue Reiter group in Munich in 1912, El Greco typified that mystical inner construction that it was the task of their generation to rediscover.  Whether or not El Greco had progressive astigmatism is still open to debate.  The strong spiritual emotion transfers from painting directly to the audience. The placing of figures in deep space and the emphasis on an architectural setting in High Renaissance style are particularly significant in his early pictures, such as Christ Cleansing the Temple. La chercheuse et ancienne directrice du Cabinet de Documentation Technique du musée du Prado s’est éteinte le 8 décembre à 73 ans. , The expressionists focused on the expressive distortions of El Greco. Pour arriver ici, rien de plus simple, les internautes bibliophiles ont recherché par exemple Le Gréco . En 2014, l'Espagne va commémorer le 4e centenaire du décès de Greco (le 7 avril 1614, à Tolède). En mémoire de Carmen Garrido. , d. ^ This document comes from the notarial archives of Candia and was published in 1962.  The same year Julius Meier-Graefe, a scholar of French Impressionism, traveled in Spain, expecting to study Velásquez, but instead becoming fascinated by El Greco; he recorded his experiences in Spanische Reise (Spanish Journey, published in English in 1926), the book which widely established El Greco as a great painter of the past "outside a somewhat narrow circle". He also saw Vitruvius' manner of distorting proportions in order to compensate for distance from the eye as responsible for creating monstrous forms. , Since the beginning of the 20th century, scholars have debated whether El Greco's style had Byzantine origins. Né en Crète, le Greco quitte rapidement son île natale pour se rendre à Venise, puis à Rome, avant de finalement s'installer à Tolède. , A few sculptures, including Epimetheus and Pandora, have been attributed to El Greco. They show no effect of his Byzantine heritage except possibly in the faces of old men—for example, in the Christ Healing the Blind. The current Trulia Estimate for 2723 El Greco Ln is $320,173. El Greco was determined to make his own mark in Rome defending his personal artistic views, ideas and style. The works he produced in Italy belong to the history of the Italian art, and those he produced in Spain to the history of Spanish art". , j. Barrés et le Greco. , h. ^ Toledo must have been one of the largest cities in Europe during this period. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? , l. ^ This theory enjoyed surprising popularity during the early years of the twentieth century and was opposed by the German psychologist David Kuntz. , The primacy of imagination and intuition over the subjective character of creation was a fundamental principle of El Greco's style. Description de l'article : editions le club francais du livre, 1953. A Cretan Village that was the Painter's Birthplace, "El Greco Paintings Lead Toward "City of God, "On the Origin and Status of the 'El Greco Fallacy, "Tradition and Originality in El Greco's Work", "A Turning Point in Rilke's Evolution: The Experience of El Greco", "Collector is Vindicated as Icon is Hailed as El Greco", "The Baptism of Christ New Light on Early El Greco", "Film on life of painter El Greco planned, Athens", "Greece buys unique El Greco for 1.2 million dollars, Athens", "El Greco Paintings Lead Toward 'City of God, "Art Review; Getting in Touch With That Inner El Greco", "A Cretan Village that Was the Painter's Birthplace Bridles at a nearby Town's Claim", "Art Review; El Greco, Bearer Of Many Gifts", "Revelations—The first Major British Retrospective of El Greco Has the Power of a Hand Grenade", "Art View; Seeing the Art of El Greco as never before", Portrait of a Cardinal, probably Cardinal Fernando Nino de Guevara, El Greco, L'Esprit nouveau: revue internationale d'esthétique, 1920, The John G. Johnson Collection: A History and Selected Works, Saint Lawrence's Vision of the Madonna and Child, Saint John the Evangelist and Saint Francis, Portrait of Fray Hortensio Félix Paravacino, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=El_Greco&oldid=997776203, Converts to Roman Catholicism from Eastern Orthodoxy, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages incorrectly using the quote template, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 04:53. La maison n'est pas la véritable mai… Pacheco characterized him as "a writer of painting, sculpture and architecture".  There was consensus that the triptych was indeed an early work of El Greco and, therefore, Pallucchini's publication became the yardstick for attributions to the artist. El Greco’s connection with the court of Philip II was brief and unsuccessful, consisting first of the Allegory of the Holy League (Dream of Philip II; 1578–79) and second of the Martyrdom of St. Maurice (1580–82). , During the same period, other researchers developed alternative, more radical theories. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. As Jonathan Brown notes, "each figure seems to carry its own light within or reflects the light that emanates from an unseen source". Philip had to rely on the lesser talent of Juan Fernández de Navarrete, of whose gravedad y decoro ("seriousness and decorum") the king approved. El Greco was sitting in a darkened room, because he found the darkness more conducive to thought than the light of the day, which disturbed his "inner light". , El Greco regarded color as the most important and the most ungovernable element of painting, and declared that color had primacy over form.  Wethey and other scholars rejected the notion that Crete took any part in his formation and supported the elimination of a series of works from El Greco's œuvre. El Greco is generally considered one of the leading figures of the Spanish Renaissance that defined the 15 th and 16 th centuries. , El Greco was disdained by the immediate generations after his death because his work was opposed in many respects to the principles of the early baroque style which came to the fore near the beginning of the 17th century and soon supplanted the last surviving traits of the 16th-century Mannerism. That fact has puzzled all writers, because he mentioned her in various documents, including his last testament. Et maintenant – vu l'immense succès qu'il a obtenu dans sa version ordinaire – également en version casher. Dans l’urgence, de peur que sa rédaction, sa parution, se heurtent avec le départ prévisible, redouté, de l’amie chanteuse. To the English artist and critic Roger Fry in 1920, El Greco was the archetypal genius who did as he thought best "with complete indifference to what effect the right expression might have on the public". EL GRECO by ANDREA EMILIANI and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.co.uk. , El Greco's personality and work were a source of inspiration for poet Rainer Maria Rilke. Not even he, himself, was able to exhaust them. El Greco’s first commission in Spain was for the high altar and the two lateral altars in the conventual church of Santo Domingo el Antiguo at Toledo (1577–79). Né en Crète, le Greco quitte rapidement son île natale pour se rendre à Venise, puis à Rome, avant de finalement s'installer à Tolède. El Greco's father, Georgios Theotokopoulos (d. 1556), was a merchant and tax collector. L'institution a été inaugurée en 1911 et conçu comme une maison-musée vouée à réunir les tableaux de l'artiste, qui commençait à être réévalué à cette époque, et donner une idée de la façon dont il vivait. L'événement a officiellement été déclaré d'intérêt culturel. Surviving contracts mention him as the tenant from 1585 onwards of a complex consisting of three apartments and twenty-four rooms which belonged to the Marquis de Villena.  Summarizing the ensuing scholarly debate on this issue, José Álvarez Lopera, curator at the Museo del Prado, Madrid, concludes that the presence of "Byzantine memories" is obvious in El Greco's mature works, though there are still some obscure issues concerning his Byzantine origins needing further illumination. For other uses, see, Greek painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance (1541–1614), "I hold the imitation of color to be the greatest difficulty of art.  On 22 February 1950, Picasso began his series of "paraphrases" of other painters' works with The Portrait of a Painter after El Greco. greco ou le secret de tolede : maurice barres , editions le club francais du livre 1953 , 138 pages , en excellent etat . A few days earlier, on 31 March, he had directed that his son should have the power to make his will. Il y est aussi influencé par le Tintoret et Bassano . , The exact number of El Greco's works has been a hotly contested issue. The brushwork remains Venetian in the way that the colour suggests form and in the free illusionistic and atmospheric creation of space. There's lots to do for both adults and children at the hotel, with several pools, activities and places to relax both indoors and outdoors. Au milieu des années 1560, il quitte la Crète, alors sous administration de la République de Venise, pour l’Italie. El Greco séjourne de 1568 à 1570 à Venise, où il est identifié comme « disciple » du Titien, bien qu'El Greco n'utilise pas la même technique. El Greco was born around 1541 in Crete, which was then part of the Republic of Venice. 2707 El Greco Ln is located in Far North, Dallas.  These are the words Meier-Graefe used to describe El Greco's impact on the artistic movements of his time: He [El Greco] has discovered a realm of new possibilities.  Nikos Hadjinikolaou states that from 1570 El Greco's painting is "neither Byzantine nor post-Byzantine but Western European. In the 1890s, Spanish painters living in Paris adopted him as their guide and mentor. We must look for the Spanish influence in Cézanne.  Even Wethey accepted that "he [El Greco] probably had painted the little and much disputed triptych in the Galleria Estense at Modena before he left Crete". Certain art historians had asserted that El Greco's roots were firmly in the Byzantine tradition, and that his most individual characteristics derive directly from the art of his ancestors, while others had argued that Byzantine art could not be related to El Greco's later work.  The views of Palomino and Bermúdez were frequently repeated in Spanish historiography, adorned with terms such as "strange", "queer", "original", "eccentric" and "odd". However Fernández died in 1579, the moment was ideal for El Greco to move to Toledo. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death.  During the 1570s the huge monastery-palace of El Escorial was still under construction and Philip II of Spain was experiencing difficulties in finding good artists for the many large paintings required to decorate it. , It was natural for the young El Greco to pursue his career in Venice, Crete having been a possession of the Republic of Venice since 1211.  French art critics Zacharie Astruc and Paul Lefort helped to promote a widespread revival of interest in his painting. consiste en. Although at the time, due to his greatly individualistic expressive style, his art was received with much reluctance and confusion, he is now considered to be one of the "select members of the modern pantheon of great painters," as claimed by art historian Keith Christiansen, … Antonio de Covarrubias, a classical scholar and son of the architect Alonso de Covarrubias, was a friend whose portrait he painted. It is known that at least one Spanish ecclesiastic who spent some time in Rome at this period—Luis de Castilla—became El Greco’s intimate friend and was eventually named one of the two executors of his last testament. At the same time, El Greco created another masterpiece of extraordinary originality—the Espolio (Disrobing of Christ). For the rest of his life El Greco continued to live in Toledo, busily engaged on commissions for the churches and monasteries there and in the province.  The Venetian painters also taught him to organize his multi-figured compositions in landscapes vibrant with atmospheric light. , El Greco also excelled as a portraitist, able not only to record a sitter's features but also to convey their character. The figures are brought close into the foreground, and in the Apostles a new brilliance of colour is achieved.  By September 1579 he had completed nine paintings for Santo Domingo, including The Trinity and The Assumption of the Virgin.  Modern scholars characterize El Greco's theory as "typically Mannerist" and pinpoint its sources in the Neoplatonism of the Renaissance. He has drawn influences from all over the Mediterranean and made his own brand of music.  In 1608, he received his last major commission at the Hospital of Saint John the Baptist in Toledo.  At the end of that year, El Greco opened his own workshop and hired as assistants the painters Lattanzio Bonastri de Lucignano and Francisco Preboste.  Indeed, he did manage to secure two important commissions from the monarch: Allegory of the Holy League and Martyrdom of St. Maurice. Avec le soutien du. Le musée du Greco est un musée situé dans la ville de Tolède en Espagne et consacré à la vie et à l'œuvre du peintre El Greco, né en Crète, mais qui a peint la majorité de ses tableaux à Tolède. Le Greco Cassou Jean Rieder.  El Greco is regarded as a painter who incorporated architecture in his painting. ^ Doña Jerónima de Las Cuevas appears to have outlived El Greco, and, although the master acknowledged both her and his son, he never married her. Among his major commissions of this period were three altars for the Chapel of San José in Toledo (1597–1599); three paintings (1596–1600) for the Colegio de Doña María de Aragon, an Augustinian monastery in Madrid, and the high altar, four lateral altars, and the painting St. Ildefonso for the Capilla Mayor of the Hospital de la Caridad (Hospital of Charity) at Illescas (1603–1605). Most analysts assume that El Greco had married unhappily in his youth and therefore could not legalize another attachment. The certain works painted by El Greco in Italy are completely in the Venetian Renaissance style of the 16th century. As his own commentaries indicate, El Greco viewed Titian, Michelangelo and Raphael as models to emulate. L'événement a officiellement été déclaré d'intérêt culturel.  Stuart Anstis, Professor at the University of California (Department of Psychology), concludes that "even if El Greco were astigmatic, he would have adapted to it, and his figures, whether drawn from memory or life, would have had normal proportions. ^ El Greco signed the contract for the decoration of the high altar of the church of the Hospital of Charity on 18 June 1603. , This article is about the artist of the Spanish Renaissance. L’artiste importe dans la péninsule « la couleur du Titien, les audaces du Tintoret et la force plastique de Michel-Ange ». Moreover, the Greek must have met important Spanish churchmen in Rome through Fulvio Orsini, a humanist and librarian of the Palazzo Farnese.  In 1570, he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works.  Harold Wethey asserts that "although Greek by descent and Italian by artistic preparation, the artist became so immersed in the religious environment of Spain that he became the most vital visual representative of Spanish mysticism". Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Naquela época Toledo era a capital religiosa da Espanha e uma cidade populosa. "El Greco" was a nickname,[a][b] a reference to his Greek origin, and the artist normally signed his paintings with his full birth name in Greek letters, Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος, Doménikos Theotokópoulos, often adding the word Κρής Krēs, Cretan. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style with elements of Mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance taken from a number of great artists of the time, notably Tintoretto. 4 Le Concile de Trente, Bruxelles, Lessius, 2013, p. 295. N° de réf. He is, nevertheless, generally known as El Greco (“the Greek”), a name he acquired when he lived in Italy, where the custom of identifying a man by designating country or city of origin was a common practice. , Since 1962, the discovery of the Dormition and the extensive archival research has gradually convinced scholars that Wethey's assessments were not entirely correct, and that his catalogue decisions may have distorted the perception of the whole nature of El Greco's origins, development and œuvre. La chercheuse et ancienne directrice du Cabinet de Documentation Technique du musée du Prado s’est éteinte le 8 décembre à 73 ans. Là, il commença à mêler ses influences byzantines avec celles des maîtres de la Haute Renaissance italienne. He lived in Venice until 1570 and, according to a letter written by his much older friend, the greatest miniaturist of the age, Giulio Clovio, was a "disciple" of Titian, who was by then in his eighties but still vigorous. Au milieu des années 1560, il quitte la Crète, alors sous administration de la République de Venise, pour l’Italie. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). tres beau livre complet et en bon etat Whereas art historian José Camón Aznar had attributed between 787 and 829 paintings to the Cretan master, Wethey reduced the number to 285 authentic works and Halldor Sœhner, a German researcher of Spanish art, recognized only 137.  Nevertheless, Wethey denied that the Modena triptych had any connection at all with the artist and, in 1962, produced a reactive catalogue raisonné with a greatly reduced corpus of materials. ", "I would not be happy to see a beautiful, well-proportioned woman, no matter from which point of view, however extravagant, not only lose her beauty in order to, I would say, increase in size according to the law of vision, but no longer appear beautiful, and, in fact, become monstrous.
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